Supreme Court Rules
Rule 57 - Rules of Civil Procedure - Rules Governing Civil Procedure in the Circuit Courts - Interrogatories and Depositions
Publication / Adopted Date:
March 29, 1974
Depositions Upon Oral Examination
Revised / Effective Date:
January 1, 2007
57.03. Depositions Upon Oral Examination
When Depositions May Be Taken.
After commencement of the action, any party may take the testimony of any person, including a party, by deposition upon oral examination. Leave of court, granted with or without notice, must be obtained only if the plaintiff seeks to take a deposition prior to the expiration of 30 days after service of the summons and petition upon any defendant, except that leave is not required if a defendant has served a notice of taking deposition or otherwise sought discovery. The attendance of witnesses may be compelled by subpoena as provided in
. The attendance of a party is compelled by notice as provided in subdivision (b) of this Rule. The deposition of a person confined in prison may be taken only by leave of court on such terms as the court describes.
Notice of Examination: General Requirements; Special Notice; Production of Documents and Things; Deposition of Organization.
(1) A party desiring to take the deposition of any person upon oral examination shall give not less than seven days notice in writing to every other party to the action and to a non-party deponent.
The notice shall state the time and place for taking the deposition and the name and address of each person to be examined, if known. If the name is not known, a general description sufficient to identify the person or the particular class or group to which the person belongs shall be stated.
If a subpoena duces tecum is to be served on the person to be examined, the designation of the materials to be produced as set forth in the subpoena shall be attached to or included in the notice.
A party may attend a deposition by telephone.
(2) The court may for cause shown enlarge or shorten the time for taking the deposition.
(3) The notice to a party deponent may be accompanied by a request made in compliance with
for the production of documents and tangible things at the taking of the deposition. The procedure of
shall apply to the request.
(4) A party may in the notice and in a subpoena name as the deponent a public or private corporation or a partnership or association or governmental agency and describe with reasonable particularity the matters on which examination is requested. In that event, the organization so named shall designate one or more officers, directors, or managing agents, or other persons who consent to testify on its behalf and may set forth, for each person designated, the matters on which the person will testify. A subpoena shall advise a nonparty organization of its duty to make such a designation. The persons so designated shall testify as to matters known or reasonably available to the organization. This Rule 57.03(b)(4) does not preclude taking a deposition by any other procedure authorized in these rules.
Non-stenographic Recording - Video Tape.
Depositions may be recorded by the use of video tape or similar methods. The recording of the deposition by video tape shall be in addition to a usual recording and transcription method unless the parties otherwise agree.
(1) If the deposition is to be recorded by video tape, every notice or subpoena for the taking of the deposition shall state that it is to be video taped and shall state the name, address and employer of the recording technician. If a party upon whom notice for the taking of a deposition has been served desires to have the testimony additionally recorded by other than stenographic means, that party shall serve notice on the opposing party and the witness that the proceedings are to be video taped. Such notice must be served not less than three days prior to the date designated in the original notice for the taking of the depositions and shall state the name, address and employer of the recording technician.
(2) Where the deposition has been recorded only by video tape and if the witness and parties do not waive signature, a written transcription of the audio shall be prepared to be submitted to the witness for signature as provided in Rule 57.03(f).
(3) The witness being deposed shall be sworn as a witness on camera by an authorized person.
(4) More than one camera may be used, either in sequence or simultaneously.
(5) The attorney for the party requesting the video taping of the deposition shall take custody of and be responsible for the safeguarding of the video tape and shall, upon request, permit the viewing thereof by the opposing party and if requested, shall provide a copy of the video tape at the cost of the requesting party.
(6) Unless otherwise stipulated to by the parties, the expense of video taping is to be borne by the party utilizing it and shall not be taxed as costs.
Record of Examination; Oath; Objections.
The officer before whom the deposition is to be taken shall put the witness on oath or affirmation and shall personally, or by someone acting under the officer's direction and in the officer's presence, record the testimony of the witness. The testimony shall be taken stenographically or recorded by any other means ordered in accordance with Rule 57.03(c). If requested by one of the parties, the testimony shall be transcribed.
All objections made at the time of the examination to the qualifications of the officer taking the deposition, to the manner of taking it, to the evidence presented, to the conduct of any party, or any other objection to the proceedings shall be noted by the officer upon the deposition. Evidence objected to shall be taken subject to the objections. In lieu of participating in the oral examination, parties may serve written questions in a sealed envelope on the party taking the deposition, and that party shall transmit them to the officer before whom the deposition is to be taken, who shall propound them to the witness, and the questions and answers thereto shall be recorded.
Motion to Terminate or Limit Examination.
At any time during the taking of the deposition, on motion of a party or of the deponent and upon a showing that the examination is being conducted in bad faith or in such manner as unreasonably to annoy, embarrass, or oppress the deponent or party, the court in which the action is pending or a court having general jurisdiction in the place where the deposition is being taken may order the officer conducting the examination to cease forthwith from taking the deposition, or may limit the scope and manner of the taking of the deposition as provided in
. If the order made terminates the examination, it shall be resumed thereafter only upon the order of the court in which the action is pending. Upon demand of the objecting party or deponent, the taking of the deposition shall be suspended for the time necessary to make a motion for an order. The provisions of
apply to the award of expenses incurred in relation to the motion.
Submission to Witness; Changes; Signing.
When the testimony is fully transcribed, the deposition shall be submitted by the officer to the witness for examination and shall be read to or by him, unless such examination and reading are waived by the witness and by the parties. Any changes in form or substance which the witness desires to make shall be entered upon the deposition by the officer with a statement of the reasons given by the witness for making them; provided, however, that the answers or responses as originally given, together with the changes made and reasons given therefor, shall be considered as a part of the deposition. The deposition shall then be signed by the witness, unless the parties by stipulation waive the signing or the witness is ill or cannot be found, or is dead or refuses to sign. If the deposition is not signed by the witness, the officer shall sign it and state on the record the fact of the waiver or of the illness, or death or absence of the witness or the fact of the refusal to sign together with the reasons, if any, given therefor; and the deposition may then be used as fully as though signed, unless, on a motion to suppress, the court holds that the reasons given for the refusal to sign require rejection of the deposition in whole or in part.
Certification, Delivery, and Filing; Exhibits; Copies
Certification and Delivery.
The officer shall certify on the deposition that the witness was duly sworn by the officer and that the deposition is a true record of the testimony given by the witness. Upon payment of reasonable charges therefor, the officer shall deliver the deposition to the party who requested that the testimony be transcribed.
(a) By the Officer. Upon delivery of a deposition, the officer shall file with the court a certificate showing the caption of the case, the name of the deponent, the date the deposition was taken, the name and address of the person having custody of the original deposition, and whether the charges have been paid. The officer shall not file a copy of the deposition with the court except upon court order.
(b) By a Party. A party shall not file a deposition with the court except upon specific court order or contemporaneously with a motion placing the deposition or a part thereof in issue. The court may enact local court rules requiring a party who intends to use a deposition at a hearing or trial to file that deposition with the court on or prior to the date of the hearing or trial.
(c) Return of Deposition. At the conclusion of the hearing or trial the deposition that has been filed or delivered to the court shall be returned to the party that filed or delivered the deposition.
(d) Retention of Deposition. The original deposition shall be maintained until the case is finally disposed.
Documents and things produced for inspection during the examination of the witness shall, upon the request of a party, be marked for identification and annexed to and returned with the deposition and may be inspected and copied by any party, except that (A) the person producing the materials may substitute copies to be marked for identification if the person affords to all parties fair opportunity to verify the copies by comparison with the originals and (B) if the person producing the materials requests their return, the officer shall mark them, give each party an opportunity to inspect and copy them, and return them to the person producing them, and the materials may then be used in the same manner as if annexed to and returned with the deposition. Any party may move for an order that the original be annexed to and returned with the deposition to the court pending final disposition of the civil action.
Upon request and payment of reasonable charges therefor, the officer shall furnish a copy of the deposition to any party or to the deponent.
Failure to Attend or to Serve Subpoena; Expenses
(1) If the party giving the notice of the taking of a deposition fails to attend and proceed therewith and another party attends in person or by attorney pursuant to the notice, the court may order the party giving notice to pay to such other party the reasonable expenses incurred by that other party and that other party's attorney in attending, including reasonable attorney's fees.
(2) If a witness fails to appear for a deposition and the party giving the notice of the taking of the deposition has not complied with these rules to compel the attendance of the witness, the court may order the party giving the notice to pay to any party attending in person or by attorney the reasonable expenses incurred by that other party and that other party's attorney in attending, including reasonable attorney's fees.